1969

“for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes”

**朗纳·弗里施（Ragnar Frisch）**

**扬·廷贝亨（Jan Tinbergen）**

1970

“for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science”

**Paul Samuelson**

1971

“for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development”

**Simon Kuznets**

1972

“for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory.”

**John Hicks**

**Kenneth Arrow**

1973

“for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems”

**Wassily Leontief**

1974

“for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena.”

**Gunnar Myrdal**

**Friedrich Hayek**

1975

“for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources”

**Leonid Kantorovich**

**Tjalling Koopmans**

1976

“for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilisation policy”

**Milton Friedman**

1977

“for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements”

**Bertil Ohlin**

**James Meade**

1978

“for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations”

**Herbert A. Simon**

1979

“for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries.”

**Theodore Schultz**

**Arthur Lewis**

1980

“for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies”

**Lawrence Klein**

1981

“for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices”

**James Tobin**

1982

“for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation”

**George Stigler**

1983

“for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium”

**Gérard Debreu**

1984

“for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis”

**Richard Stone**

1985

“for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets”

**Franco Modigliani**

1986

“for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making”

**James M. Buchanan**

1987

“for his contributions to the theory of economic growth”

**Robert Solow**

1988

“for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources”

**Maurice Allais**

1989

“for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures”

**Trygve Haavelmo**

1990

“for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics”

**Harry Markowitz**

**Merton Miller**

**William F. Sharpe**

1991

**罗纳德·科斯（Ronald Coase）**

*“for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy”*

20世纪60年代在论文中首次提出产权分配和经济效率之间的关系，后被归纳总结为科斯定理（Coase theorem）。科斯定律可以概括为：“只要交易成本等于零，法定权利（即产权）的初始配置并不影响效率。”

1992

“for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including non-market behaviour”

**Gary Becker**

1993

“for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change”

**Robert Fogel**

**Douglass North**

1994

“for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games.”

**John Harsanyi**

**John Forbes Nash**

**Reinhard Selten**

1995

“for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy”

**Robert Lucas, Jr.**

1996

“for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information”

**James Mirrlees**

**William Vickrey**

1997

“for a new method to determine the value of derivatives.”

**Robert C. Merton**

**Myron Scholes**

1998

“for his contributions to welfare economics”

**Amartya Sen**

1999

“for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas”

**Robert Mundell**

2000

“for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples”

**James Heckman**

“for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice”

**Daniel McFadden**

2001

“for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information”

**George Akerlof**

**Michael Spence**

**Joseph E. Stiglitz**

2002

“for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty”

**Daniel Kahneman**

“for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms”

**Vernon L. Smith**

2003

“for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)”

**Robert F. Engle**

“for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)”

**Clive Granger**

2004

“for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles.”

**Finn E. Kydland**

**Edward C. Prescott**

2005

“for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis.”

**Robert J. Aumann**

**Thomas C. Schelling**

2006

“for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy”

**Edmund S. Phelps**

2007

“for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory”

**Leonid Hurwicz**

**Eric S. Maskin**

**Roger B. Myerson**

2008

“for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity”

**Paul Krugman**

2009

“for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons”

**Elinor Ostrom**

“for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm”

**Oliver E. Williamson**

2010

“for their analysis of markets with search frictions”

**Peter A. Diamond**

**Dale T. Mortensen**

**Christopher A. Pissarides**

2011

**Thomas J. Sargent**

**Christopher A. Sims**

“for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy”

2012

“for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design.”

**Alvin E. Roth**

**Lloyd S. Shapley**

2013

“for their empirical analysis of asset prices.”

**尤金·法马（Eugene F. Fama）**

*“效率市场假说”理论的奠基人*

**拉尔斯·彼得·汉森（Lars Peter Hansen）**

*Generalized Method of Moments (GMM)的发明者*

**罗伯特·席勒（Robert J. Shiller）**

2014

“for his analysis of market power and regulation”

**让·梯若尔（Jean Tirole）**

Ph.D, Massachusetts Institute of Technology